### Keeping track of the costs...

I'm really enjoying this article  by Andresen and colleagues on the costs and errors associated with tracking (locating panel members). They look at both sides of the problem. I think that is pretty neat.

There was one part of the article that raised a question in my mind. On page 46, they talk about tracking costs. They say "...[t]he average tracing costs per interview for stages 1 and 2 were calculated based on the number of tracing activities performed at each stage." An assumption here -- I think -- is that each tracing activity (they list 6 different manual tracing activities) takes the same amount of time. So take the total time from the tracing team, and divide it by the number of activities performed, and you have the average time per activity.

This is perfectly reasonable and fairly robust. You might do better with a regression model predicting hours from the types and numbers of activities performed in a week. Or you might ask for more specific information on timesheets.

I'm not a fan of the latter approach. It generally costs more money to track costs that carefully, and the cost measures might be inaccurate. "How long did it take you to do X?" might have inaccurate answers. There has to be some benefit to having those data that can justify the costs. Of course, you can't justify the added cost without the data, so it can be a classic chicken or egg problem. In these situations, if feasible, it might be nice to do a special study of costs -- gather them experimentally or have observers to more detailed study.

### "Responsive Design" and "Adaptive Design"

My dissertation was entitled "Adaptive Survey Design to Reduce Nonresponse Bias." I had been working for several years on "responsive designs" before that. As I was preparing my dissertation, I really saw "adaptive" design as a subset of responsive design.

Since then, I've seen both terms used in different places. As both terms are relatively new, there is likely to be confusion about the meanings. I thought I might offer my understanding of the terms, for what it's worth.

The term "responsive design" was developed by Groves and Heeringa (2006). They coined the term, so I think their definition is the one that should be used. They defined "responsive design" in the following way:

1. Preidentify a set of design features that affect cost and error tradeoffs.
2. Identify indicators for these costs and errors. Monitor these during data collection.
3. Alter the design features based on pre-identified decision rules based on the indi…

### An Experimental Adaptive Contact Strategy

I'm running an experiment on contact methods in a telephone survey. I'm going to present the results of the experiment at the FCSM conference in November. Here's the basic idea.

Multi-level models are fit daily with the household being a grouping factor. The models provide household-specific estimates of the probability of contact for each of four call windows. The predictor variables in this model are the geographic context variables available for an RDD sample.

Let $\mathbf{X_{ij}}$ denote a $k_j \times 1$ vector of demographic variables for the $i^{th}$ person and $j^{th}$ call. The data records are calls. There may be zero, one, or multiple calls to household in each window. The outcome variable is an indicator for whether contact was achieved on the call. This contact indicator is denoted $R_{ijl}$ for the $i^{th}$ person on the $j^{th}$ call to the $l^{th}$ window. Then for each of the four call windows denoted $l$, a separate model is fit where each household is assum…

### Is there such a thing as "mode"?

Ok. The title is a provocative question. But it's one that I've been thinking about recently. A few years ago, I was working on a lit review for a mixed-mode experiment that we had done. I found that the results were inconsistent on an important aspect of mixed-mode studies -- the sequence of modes.

As I was puzzled about this, I went back and tried to write down more information about the design of each of the experiments that I was reviewing. I started to notice a pattern. Many mixed-mode surveys offered "more" of the first mode. For example, in a web-mail study, there might be 3 mailings with the mail survey and one mailed request for a web survey. This led me to think of "dosage" as an important attribute of mixed-mode surveys.

I'm starting to think there is much more to it than that. The context matters  a lot -- the dosage of the mode, what it may require to complete that mode, the survey population, etc. All of these things matter.

Still, we ofte…